The Scotch Irish in Ulster Ireland


THE SCOTCH-IRISH

The following is a brief account of where the Scotch-Irish started out from, traveled to, and then settled in, America.

Source: “The Scotch-Irish: A Social History” by James G Leyburn.

Ulster, one of the four traditional “kingdoms” of Ireland, was only 20 miles across the channel from Scotland. In 1603, a laird of northern Ayrshire (Scotland), Hugh Montgomery, learned that Con O’Niell was in prison. O’Niell was a chieftain of large properties in County Down, and County Antrim. Montgomery proposed to O’Neill a bargain. He could effect the escape and pardon of O’Neill, if in return, O’Neill would grant him half of his lands. The escape and pardon was achieved, but the granting of lands to Montgomery, was denied by King James. Montgomery sought the aid of another Ayrshire laird, James Hamilton, who had great influence with the King. With a new agreement drawn, giving each of the two Lairds a third of O’Niell’s property, but had conditions, “that the lands should be planted with British Protestants, and that no grant of fee farm (i.e. freeholds) should be made to any person of “mere” Irish extraction.”

In 1609, the two Scots, Montgomery and Hamilton, began to induce tenants and other Scots, to come over as farmer-settlers. Within 10 years, the population of the Plantation of Ulster had reached around eight thousand. The assignment of lands to Scottish undertakers was to have a permanent effect on the character of Ulster. Despite every vicissitude, including massacres and war, the Plantation gradually grew strong and proved to be a success. If one cause more than any other can be singled out for its success, it would be the presence, the persistence, and the industry of the Scots in the region.

Back in Scotland, there was an increasing hardship occasioned by the spread of a form of land tenure, called the feu (a), which had the effect of dispossessing many farmers of their traditional lands. They were attracted to the generous lands visible across the channel from the shores of southwestern Scotland. Any Scot who had the inclination might now take the short journey across to Ulster and there, on easy terms, acquire a holding of land reputed to be far more fertile and productive than any he was likely to know in his own country. Economic distress in the Lowlands and economic opportunities in Ulster were the predominant causes for migration during the first fifty years after the plantation scheme had begun in 1610. In the Lowlands a positive fever for emigration swept. Ships were traveling back and forth with the frequency of a ferry.

 

(a) Feu….. see below

 

From 1634 onward to 1690, life for the colonists of Ulster was to consist of a series of crises, some of them so prolonged and severe that the very existence of the Scottish settlements were threatened. The trouble had two causes: religious exactions from England and native uprisings. Under the Jesuits the Irish people had become fervently Catholic; to them the Protestants of Ulster were heretics as well as interlopers. The native Irish resented the intrusion of Scottish (and English) settlers on their ancestral lands, and their resentment exploded in 1641 in bitter insurrection.

Between 1717 and the Revolutionary War some quarter of a million Ulstermen came to America.

By the time the Great Migration began in 1717, a few Ulstermen were present in at least half of the American colonies, often alongside immigrants who had recently come directly from Scotland. It was when Ulster developed, in rapid succession, two new industries that the pinch came. Both woolen and linen manufacture grew apace in the closing years of the seventeenth century, bringing remarkable prosperity to North Ireland and arousing uneasiness among English competitors. Belfast, had arisen from the swamps of the Laggan Valley, giving Ulster a sheltered seaport for her growing trade. The competition of Irish cloth seemed unendurable to English cloth interests. At the Kings command, Irish Parliament in Dublin passed the Woolens Act in 1699, giving a crippling blow to the industry in Ulster. The substantial leaders of Ulster had put their primary economic faith in manufacture and trade, and their success in life now depended upon two unknown and uncontrollable factors: the arbitrary acts of the English Parliament and the ups and downs of the foreign market. A third and more immediate economic cause stimulated the first great migration of 1717. This was the suffering caused by rack-renting. The land question assuredly played a large part in driving Presbyterian Ulsterman to take the drastic step of removing to America. From rack-renting, whole villages lost their Protestant element by migration to America. The final blow was a succession of calamitous years for farmers. During the ‘teens, there were six years in succession that were notable for insufficient rainfall (1714-1719).

The first migration, then was touched off by a combination of drought, rack-renting, diminished trade in woolen goods, depression, and also religious discrimination and “persecution.” When the fourth successive year of drought ruined the crops in 1717, serious preparations began to be made for a migration. Ships were chartered, consultations were held, groups were organized, and property was sold. More than five thousand Ulstermen that year made the journey to the American colonies. There were but two real drawbacks--the dangers of an ocean crossing(especially for woman and children) and the expense of that passage. The practice of indenture has long been a familiar device.

There were five great waves of emigration, with a lesser flow in intervening years: 1717-1718, 1725-1729, 1740-1741, 1754-1755, and 1771-1775.

In 1717, at least 5000 Ulstermen left Ireland. Jonathan Dickinson reported from Philadelphia in 1717, that there had arrived “from ye north of Ireland many hundreds in about four months,” and that during the summer “we have had 12 or 13 sayle of ships from the North of Ireland with a swarm of people.”

The second wave was so large, that not only the friends of Ireland, but even the English Parliament became concerned. In the Pennsylvania Gazette it was reported “that poverty, wretchedness, misery and want are become almost universal among them; that...there is not Corn enough rais’d for their subsistence one year with another; and at the same time the trade and manufactures of the Nation being cramp’d and discourag’d, the labouring people have little to do, and consequently are not able to purchase bread at its present dear rate; That the taxed are nevertheless exceeding heavy, and money very scarce; and add to all this, that their griping, avaricious landlords exercise over them the most merciless racking tyranny and oppression. Hence it is that such swarms of them are driven over into America.”

The third wave marked, on the American side, the first movement of Scotch-Irish in any numbers beyond the confines of generous Pennsylvania to the southwest. Following the path through the Great Valley, many Ulstermen now went into the rich Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, whose southern extremity opened out toward North and South Carolina. The second wave had so well established the Scotch-Irish in the south eastern tier of counties in Pennsylvania, that their influence, even in political affairs in the Quaker commonwealth was becoming impressive. Famine struck Ireland in 1740, and was certainly the principal occasion for the third large wave, which included numbers of substantial Ulstermen. An estimated 400,000 persons died in Ireland during 1740-1741; for the next decade there was a tremendous exodus to America.

The fourth exodus had two major causes: effective propaganda from America, and calamitous drought in Ulster. A succession of governors of North Carolina had made a special effort to attract to that province colonists from Ulster and from Scotland. Governor Dobbs of North Carolina,( formally from Carrickfergus County Antrim) declared that as many as ten thousand immigrants had landed in Philadelphia in a single season, so that many were “obliged to remove to the southward for want of lands to take up” in Pennsylvania.

In 1717, when the leases on the large estate of the Marquis of Donegal in county Antrim expired, the rents were so greatly advanced that scores of tenants could not comply with the demands, and so were evicted from the farms their families had long occupied. During the next three years nearly a hundred vessels sailed from the ports in the North of Ireland, “carrying as many as 25,000 passengers, all Presbyterian.” Thousands of the Scotch-Irish began their New World careers as servants. In 1728, it was estimated that “above 3,200” persons had come from Ulster to America in the previous three years, and “that only one in ten could pay his own passage.” Going to America came to mean, by the middle of the century, not launching out into a vast unknown, but moving to a country where one’s friends and relatives had a home. It offered the very exciting chance to own one’s own land, instead of holding it on a lease that might end in rack-renting; it meant a heady freedom from religious and political restrictions; it even promised affluence and social prominence to those who were truly ambitious. Every group who went made it easier for others to follow and so by 1775, probably 200,000 Ulstermen had migrated to America.

The southern provinces, Virginia and the Carolinas, were hardly considered, for the impoverished Ulstermen would seen nothing attractive in a region of plantations and slave-owning, where the Church of England was established. Maryland had been founded for Roman Catholics, was principally a plantation colony, and now had an Established Church; it was therefore not the place for Presbyterians who wanted small farms. New York’s governors were reportedly hard on dissenters, and her lands up the Hudson were owned in great estates. Eliminating these, there remained the Middle colonies and New England. Reports from Penn’s settlements were enthusiastic as to the quality of land and the treatment of colonists; moreover, an invitation to settle there had come from the Secretary.

The people who entered America by the Delaware River, found a land of the heart’s desire. Their enthusiastic praise of Pennsylvania persuaded others to follow them, and then still others, until by 1720 “to go to America” meant, for most emigrants from Ulster, to take ship for the Delaware River ports, and then head west. For the entire fifty-eight years of the Great Migration, the large majority of Scotch-Irish made their entry to America through Philadelphia or Chester or New Castle.

With these towns as their starting point, and the western frontier their destination, the immigrants, as they poured in found their path of progress almost laid out for them by geography. The Great Valley lead westward for a hundred miles or more; then when high mountains blocked further easy movement in that direction, the Valley turned southwestward across the Potomac to become the Shenandoah Valley. From the southern terminus of the Valley of Virginia, it was a short trip, by the time the pioneers had reached it, into the Piedmont regions of the Carolinas, where colonists were now warmly welcomed. Within this seven hundred mile arc of back-country, therefore, from Philadelphia as far as the upper Savannah River, most of the Scotch-Irish made their homes.

It would have been difficult to imagine anywhere, in the world of 1717, conditions more attractive to discontented inhabitants of the Old World, than those which prevailed in the province of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania, among the last of the original colonies to be founded, had by 1717 been proving for thirty years its stability and prosperity, its practical liberality and hospitality. Nothing like the generosity of its appeal was known in other colonies. Penn himself and his friends, set forth to Europeans the advantages of his province. Pennsylvania became the scene of an alternating and parallel movement of two peoples. The Scotch-Irish went to one part of a river valley, Germans on the other; the next year’s arrivals advanced beyond the settlements to repeat the process.

To the three original counties of Pennsylvania, along the Delaware (Philadelphia, Chester, and Bucks) the proprietors thought it wise in 1729 to add a fourth, Lancaster. The Scotch-Irish followed the river valleys, keeping north of the disputed border line of Maryland. The provincial government organized still further counties as the frontier was filled up: York in 1749, Cumberland in 1750, and Bedford 1771, not to mention other counties to the north of Philadelphia.

Chroniclers speak of the Scotch-Irish, who arrived in Cumberland during the decade after 1725 as folk “of the better sort...a Christian people.” It has been called the most important single Scotch-Irish centre in America--”the seed-plot and nursery of their race...” Franklin County received its first Scotch Irishmen between 1728 and 1740, and York, whose initial settlers consisted of “families of the better class of peasantry,” between 1731 and 1735.

 It is said that no Scotch-Irish family felt comfortable until it had moved at least twice!

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Scottish "undertakers" in Ulster 

                                    (See both sections)

The Scottish Undertakers
The first list of Scottish applicants
for Ulster allotments was completed by September 14, 1609.
The following is the list as given in volume VIII of the official edition
of the Register of the Privy Council of Scotland:

Adamson, James, brother of Mr. William Adamson of Greycrook [Craigcrook]; surety, Andrew Hariot of Ravelston: 2000 acres.
Aitchison, Harry, in Edinburgh; surety, Mr. James Cunningham of Mountgrennan: 2000 acres.
Alexander, Robert, son of Christopher Alexander, burgess of Stirling; surety, his said father; 1000 acres.
Anderson, James, portioner of Little Goven; surety, John Allison in Carsbrig; 1000 acres.
Anderson, John, burgess of Edinburgh; surety, Thomas Anderson, burgess there.
Bellenden, John, son of the late Justice-Clerk Sir Lewis Bellenden; surety, Sir George Livingstone of Ogilface; 2000 acres.
Bellenden, William, also son of the late Sir Lewis Bellenden; surety, Mr. John Hart, younger, in the Canongate; 2000 acres.
Borthwick, David, chamberlain of Newbattle; surety, George Thorbrand, burgess of Edinburgh; 2000 acres.
Brown, John, in Gorgie Mill; surety, Harry Aikman, in Brumehouse; 2000 acres.
Carmichael, David, son of James Carmichael of Pottishaw; surety, Mr. John Ross, burgess of Glasgow; 1000 acres.
Colquhoun, Mr. Malcolm, burgess of Glasgow; surety, Alexander Colquhoun of Luss; 2000 acres.
Coutts, Robert, of Corswoods; surety, John Coutts, skinner, burgess of Edinburgh; 1000 acres.
Cranstoun, Nathaniel, son of Mr. Michael Cranstoun, minister of Cramond; surety, Robert Wardlaw in Edinburgh; 1500 acres.
Crawford, Daniel, goldsmith in Edinburgh; surety, George Crawford, goldsmith there; 1000 acres.
Crawford, David, son of Andrew Crawford of Bedlair; surety, Robert Montgomery of Kirktown; 2000 acres.
Crawford, James, goldsmith, burgess of Edinburgh; surety, Archibald Hamilton of Bairfute; 2000 acres.
Crawford, Robert, of Possill; surety, John Montgomery of Cokilbie; 2000 acres.
Crichton, Abraham, brother of Thomas Crichton of Brunstone; surety, said Crichton of Brunstone; 2000 acres.
Crichton, Thomas of Brunstone; surety, Mr. James Cunningham of Mountgrennan; 2000 acres.
Cunningham, Alexander, of Powton; surety, George Murray of Broughton; 2000 acres.
Cunningham, John, of Raws; surety, James Guidlet in Strabrock; 2000 acres.
Dalyrymple, James, brother of Dalyrymple of Stair; surety, George Crawford, younger of Auchincorse; 2000 acres.
Douglas, George, of Shiell; surety, Douglas of Pumpherston; 2000 acres.
Douglas, James, of Clappertoun; surety, George Douglas of Shiell; 1000 acres.
Douglas, William, son of Joseph of Pumpherston; surety, his said father; 2000 acres.
Dunbar, Alexander, of Egirness; surety, George Murray of Broughton; 2000 acres.
Dunbar, John, of Avach; surety, David Lindsay, keeper of the tolbooth of Edinburgh; 2000 acres.
Finlayson, Mr. John, heir apparent of Killeith; surety, John Dunbar of Avach; 2000 acres.
Forres, John, of Dirleton; surety, Walter Ker of Cocklemill; 2000 acres.
Forster, William, in Leith; surety, John Forster in Edinburgh; 1000 acres.
Fowler, William, merchant-burgess in Edinburgh; surety, James Inglis, skinner, burgess of Edinburgh; 2000 acres.
Guidlet, James, of Strabrock; surety, John Cunningham of Raws; 2000 acres.
Hamilton, Claud, of Creichness; surety, Archibald Hamilton of Bairfute; 2000 acres.
Hamilton, George, of East Binnie; surety, Mr. Edward Marshall, clerk of commissary of Edinburgh; 2000 acres.
Hamilton, Robert, of Stanhouse; 2000 acres.
Hamilton, Robert, son of the late Gilbert Hamilton; surety, Gavin Hamilton of Raploch; 2000 acres.
Hepburn, Alexander, of Bangla; surety, Sir Robert Hepburn of Alderstoun; 2000 acres.
Home, Robert, of Blackhills; surety, Mr. John Home of Swansheill; 2000 acres.
Inglis, Thomas, younger of Auldliston; surety, James, Lord Torphichen; 2000 acres.
Irving, Robert, at the mill of Cowie; surety, Edward Johnston, younger, merchant in Edinburgh; 2000 acres.
Johnstone, John, bailie Water of Leith; surety, Daniel Coutts in Dalry Mill; 2000 acres.
Ker, Walter, of Cocklemill; surety, John Forres in Dirleton; 1500 acres.
Lauder, Alexander, son of William Lauder of Bellhaven; surety, his said father; 2000 acres.


Lindsay, Mr. Jerome, in Leith; surety, David Lindsay, keeper of the tollbooth in Edinburgh; 2000 acres.

Sir Jerome Lindsay, Lord Lion, 1562-1642, son of Rev. David ca 1530-1613, Bishop of Ross.  Married Agnes, dau. of Sir David Lindsay of the Mount. 

This is merger of two prominent Lindsay families:

Sir David of Crawford ?-1346+ (Agnes) and Sir David of Edzel (Jerome) ca 1527.      Had daughter Rachel 1612-1645.                                                                                                        Rachel m. Capt. Bernard Lindsay 1603-1646+; son of Bernard of LOCHILL

            This merged three families together, bringing in Thomas of Kingswark:

Thomas Lindsay of Kingswark

Bernard Lindsay of LOCHHILL dd. Dec. 1626 London, England (brother of Robert of LOUGHRY)  Granted land in Ulster

Lt. Col. Bernard Lindsay of LOCHHILL chd. 14 June, 1603 & Rachel Lindsay (daughter of Sir Jerome Lindsay of Annatland & Agnes Lindsay of the Mount)

            Robert b. 1641

                        Opie dd. 1727

John  (..supposed brother of Robert )

                                                Robert b. ca 1740 dd. 1801


Lindsay, Mr. Robert, in Leith; surety, George Smailholm, in Leith; 2000 acres
.

Thomas Lindsay of Kingswark

            Robert Lindesay of LOUGHRY (brother of Bernard of LOCHHILL)

            bp. Leith, Scotland dd. abt. Feb. 1618, Loughry, County Tyrone, Ireland

Capt. Robert Lindesay of Loughry b. 1604. Leith, Scotland dd. 18 May, 1674 (Thus we derive the approximate date of Robert’s move to Ireland)

            Robert dd. 1691

                        John bd. 1686       

 

   See below!

Livingston, Sir George, of Ogilface; surety, John Crawford of Bearcrofts; 2000 acres.
Lockhart, Stephen, of Wicketshaw; surety, Thomas Weir of Kirktoun; 2000 acres.
McClellan, Herbert, of Grogrie; surety, George Murray of Broughton; 2000 acres.
McCulloch, James, of Drummorell; surety, George Murray of Broughton; 2000 acres.
McGill, M. Samuel, burgess of Glasgow; surety, Robert Gray, brother of Patrick, Lord Gray; 2000 acres.
Mac Walter, Parlane, of Auchinvennell; surety, Alexander Colquhoun of Luss; 2000 acres.
Marjoribanks, Thomas, son of Thomas Marjoribanks of Ratho; surety, John Marjoribanks, apparent of Ratho; 2000 acres.
Meldrum, John, brother of the Laird of Seggie; surety, Ramsay of Balmonth; 2000 acres.
Melville, James, son of John Melville of Raith; surety, James Melville of Fodinche; 2000 acres.
Montgomery, Robert, of Kirktown; surety, Robert Crawford of Possill; 2000 acres.
Mowbray, William, son of John Mowbray of Groftangry; surety, his said father; 2000 acres.
Mure, James, portioner of Both-Kenner; surety, Cuthbert Cunningham, Provost of Dumbarton; 2000 acres.
Murray, George, of Broughton; surety, Alexander Dunbar of Egirness; 2000 acres.
Orrock, Captain David; surety, Lord Ochiltree; 2000 acres.
Pont, Mr. Timothy, minister; surety, Alexander Borthwick of Nether Laich; 2000 acres.
Purves, Thomas, in Bald; surety, John Purves cordiner in Edinburgh; 1000 acres.
Ramsay, Alexander, brother of Thomas Ramsay of Balmonth; surety, Meldrum of Seggie; 2000 acres.
Ross, Mr. John, burgess of Glasgow; surety, James Carmichael of Pottishaw; 1500 acres.
Smailholm, George, in Laith; surety, Mr. Robert Lindsay in Leith; 2000 acres.
Stewart, Harry, of Barskimming; surety, Lord Ochiltree; 2000 acres.
Stewart, James, of Rossyth; surety, William Stewart of Dunduff; 2000 acres.
Stewart, Robert, uncle of Lord Ochiltree; surety, sid Lord Ochiltree; 2000 acres.
Stewart, Robert, of Robertoun; surety, William Stewart of Dunduff; 2000 acres.
Stewart, Robert, in Edinburgh; surety, William Stewart of Dunduff, 2000 acres.
Stewart, William, of Dunduff; surety, Lord Ochiltree, 2000 acres.
Tarbet, James, servitor to the Earl of Dumfermline; surety, Thomas Inglis, younger of Ouldliston, 1000 acres
Thorbrand, Alexander, son of George Thorbrand, burgess of Edinburgh; surety, his said father; 1500 acres.
Watson, Mr. James, portioner of Sauchton; surety, John Watson, portioner of Sauchton; 2000 acres.
Watson, John, portioner of Sauchton; surety, James Crawford, goldsmith, burgess of Edinburgh; 2000 acres.
Weir, Thomas, of Kirktoun; surety, Stephen Lockhart, of Wicketshaw; 2000 acres.
Wilkie, John, burgess of Edinburgh; surety, James Murray, burgess there; 2000 acres
Wood, Andrew, brother of John Wood of Galstoun; surety, his said brother; 2000 acres.

The Second List
The Scottish Undertakers who were actually granted allotments in Ulster
were those on the list made up in 1610 by the King and his
English Privy Council sitting in London.
The following schedule is taken from vol. IX of the
register of the Privy Council of Scotland.


Undertakers For 3,000 acres each......(County)

Ludovic Stewart, Duke of Lennox ( Donegal)
James Hamilton, Earl of Abercorn (Tyrone)
Esme Stewart, Lord D'Aubigny, brother of the Duke of Lennox (Cavan)
Michael Balfour, Lord of Burley (Fermanagh)
Andrew Stewart, Lord Ochiltree (Tyrone)

Undertakers For 2,000 acres each......(County)


John Clapen (Tyrone)
Sir James Cunningham, of Glengarnock (Donegal)
Sir James Douglas (Armagh)
Sir Alexander Hamilton (Cavan)
Sir Claud Hamilton (Tyrone)
Sir John Home (Fermanagh)
Sir Robert MacClellan, of Bomby (Donegal)

Undertakers For 1,500 acres each......(County)


___, Balfour, Younger of Montquhany (Fermanagh)
Sir Thomas Boyd (Tyrone)
William Fowler (Fermanagh)
James Haig (Tyrone)
Robert Hamilton (Fermanagh)
Sir Robert Hepburn, Late Lieutenant of the Kings Guard in Scotland (Tyrone)
George Murray of Broughton (Donegal)
William Stewart, brother of Lord Garlies (Donegal)
Sir John Wishart of Pitarro (Fermanagh)

Undertakers For 1,000 acres each......(County)


Henry Aitchinson (Armagh)
Alexander Auchmutie (Cavan)
John Auchmutie (Cavan)
William Baillie (Cavan)
John Brown (Cavan)
___ Crawford of Liefnoreis (Tyrone)
John Craig (Armagh)
Alexander Cunningham (Donegal)
Cuthbert Cunningham (Donegal)
James Cunningham (Donegal)
John Cunningham of Granfield (Donegal)
Sir John Drummond of Bordland (Tyrone)
Alexander Dunbar (Donegal)
John Dunbar (Fermanagh)
William Dunbar (Cavan)
James Gibb (Fermanagh)
Sir Claud Hamilton (Cavan)
Claud Hamilton (Armagh)
George Hamilton (Tyrone)
Alexander Hume (Fermanagh)
William Lauder (Armagh)


Barnard Lindsay (Tyrone)

Thomas Lindsay of Kingswark

Bernard Lindsay of LOCHHILL dd. Dec. 1626 London, England (brother of Robert of LOUGHRY)  Granted land in Ulster

Lt. Col. Bernard Lindsay of LOCHHILL chd. 14 June, 1603 & Rachel Lindsay (daughter of Sir Jerome Lindsay of Annatland & Agnes Lindsay of the Mount)

            Robert b. 1641

                        Opie dd. 1727

John  (..supposed brother of Robert )

                                                Robert b. ca 1740 dd. 1801


John Lindsay (Fermanagh)   ????


Robert Lindsay (Tyrone)

Thomas Lindsay of Kingswark

            Robert Lindesay of LOUGHRY (brother of Bernard of LOCHHILL)

            bp. Leith, Scotland dd. abt. Feb. 1618, Loughry, County Tyrone, Ireland

Capt. Robert Lindesay of Loughry b. 1604. Leith, Scotland dd. 18 May, 1674 (Thus we derive the approximate date of Robert’s move to Ireland)

            Robert dd. 1691

                        John bd. 1686


Alexander Macaulay of Durling (Donegal)
James MacCulloch (Donegal)
Sir Patrick M'Kie (Donegal)
___ Moneypenny, of Kinkell (Fermanagh)
John Ralston (Cavan)
George Smailholm (Fermanagh)
John Stewart (Donegal)
Robert Stewart of Haltoun (Tyrone)
Robert Stewart of Robertoun (Tyrone)
Sir Walter Stewart of Minto (Donegal)
William Stewart of Dumduff (Donegal)
James Trail (Fermanagh)
Patrick Vaus (Donegal)

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(a) Feu, a defination:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

FEU, in Scotland, the commonest mode of land tenure. The word is the Scots variant of fee. The relics of the feudal system still dominate Scots conveyancing. That system has recognized as many as seven forms of tenureward, socage, mortification, feu, blench, burgage, booking. Ward, the original military holding, was abolished in 1747 (20 G. II. c. 20), as an effect of the rising of 745. Socage and mortification have long since disappeared. Booking is a conveyance peculiar to the borough of Paisley, but does not differ essentially from feu. Burgage is the system by which land is held in royal boroughs. Blench holding is by a nominal payment, as of a penny Scots, or a red rose, often only to be rendered upon demand. In feu holding there is a substantial annual payment in money or in kind in return for the enjoyment of the land. The crown is the first overlord or superior, and land is held of it by crown vassals, but they in their turn may feu their land, as it is called, to others who become their vassals, whilst they themselves are mediate overlords or superiors; and this process of sub-infeudation may be repeated to an indefinite extent. The Conveyancing Act of 1874 renders any clause in a disposition against subinfeudatioii null and void. In England on the other hand, since 1290, when the statute Quia Emptores was passed, sub-infeudation is impossible, as the new holder simply effaces the grantor, holding by the same title as the grantor himself. Casualties, which are a feature of land held in feu, are certain payments made to the superior, contingent on the happening of certain events. The most important was the payment of an amount equal to one years feu-duty by a new holder, whether heir or purchaser of the feu. The Conveyancing Act of 1874 abolished casualties in all feus after that date, and power was given to redeem this burden on feus already existing. If the vassal does not pay the feu-duty for two years, the superior, among other remedies, may obtain by legal process a decree of irritancy, whereupon tinsel or forfeiture of the feu follows. Previously to 1832 only the vassals of the crown had votes in parliamentary elections for the Scots counties, and this made in favor of subinfeudation as against sale outright. In Orkney and Shetland land is still largely possessed as udal property, a holding derived or handed down from the time when these islands belonged to Norway. Such lands may be converted into feus at the will of the proprietor and held from the crown or Lord Dundas. At one time the system of conveyancing by which the transfer of feus was effected was curious and complicated, requiring the presence of parties on the land itself and the symbolical handing over of the property, together with the registration of various documents. But legislation since the middle of the 19th century has changed all that. The system of feuing in Scotland, as contrasted with that of long leaseholds in England, has tended to secure greater solidity and firmness in the average buildings of the northern country.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.